IP addresses are the business cards of our teams, where they are identified by a set of numbers. Knowing what its function is can help us know how to configure VPNs, SSH accesses, or remote accesses.IPs grow every day and for now, IPv6 is known as the most current version However, due to Internet changes, when necessary, another more advanced version may emerge. The IPv4 version despite being still the standard version of many devices is being changed by the new version.

In this post, you will find all the information you need to know the functions of the IP protocols, and we will also explain the processes or cycles that this must fulfill.

What is the IP protocol and what are the addresses derived from it?

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The IP protocol (an acronym for its acronym in English Internet Protocol), is the main basis of Internet browsing. Its function is that of sending data from a source to a destination, which is identified with what is known as an IP address.

At the moment when the data is being transmitted, the datagrams can be split or divided, which are then rejoined when they reach their destination.

Internet protocols meet the following characteristics:

  • It is a non-connection-oriented protocol.
  • Fragment the packages Always when needed.
  • You can make addresses to logical addresses as is the 32-bit IP.
  • The Sent packets can remain alive on the network for a finite period.
  • Complies with efficiency and effectiveness, in the distribution of packages.
  • May distribute packets up to a maximum size of 65635 bytes.

Most of the distribution services are provided by IP protocols, which allow communication between two points for sending or receiving computer packages.

When we talk about orientation “No connection” We mean that the information packets that are going to be broadcast to the network, are treated independently, allowing these to travel along different paths to reach the destination point.

What is a datagram?

A datagram is a unit that contains a quantity of information exchanged by IP. The structure of the datagrams is mainly by a header and a data area. The Internet protocol does not fully specify the content of the data area, so it can be used arbitrarily by the transport protocol in the next layer.

How many types of IP addresses exist and how is it different from one another?

As we know, IP addresses are very important, but these are classified into private IPs and public IPs, which in turn public They can be divided into fixed or dynamic:

Private IP

This type of IP network is widely used at the business level since you can identify each of the devices that are connected to them. For example, it is what we create when we connect our smartphone, printer, and laptop to the same wireless network of our home (Wifi).

Public IP

These are the ones we use commonly, since they are visible to any of our devices, and are usually issued by a router or modem.

This address is subdivided into fixed or dynamic, whose functions are the following:

Fixed

This is the IP address you are given assignments to devices that will never be changed (unless an expert staff does), we can witness them at any of the two IP addresses (private or public).

IPs are set to offer higher speed data download, but despite this and their great stability they can present some inconveniences because this type of IP they are very vulnerable to cyber-attacks.

This is because, because they are a static address, hackers have the time they want. to be able to send viruses and infect the network, the main flaw of this IP is its vulnerability. You also have to know that your configuration must be manual, so we must always pay an additional fee to obtain it.

Dynamics

This address, unlike the fixed always is constantly changing, this is done every time the device establishes an Internet connection. It is used when Internet providers have a larger number of clients than an IP address, whose hypothesis is that all users are unlikely to connect at the same time.

While the fixed network presents a deficit in its security, this has a higher level of protection, in addition the configuration is done automatically, although the probability that this connection is interrupted is greater than the fixed one.

How are private IP addresses classified and how are they different?

It can be subdivided into three parts, which are composed of a set of numbers that are destined exclusively for private IP addresses, which are named as follows:

A class

(10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255), Its main use is to maintain communication in large networks, which are mostly hired by transnational companies.

Class B

(172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255), generally used for medium-sized companies whose network should not be so extensive, they are also used by schools or universities.

C Class

(192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255), are simply those home networks where the working range is very short, and whose main use is homes.

What are the versions of the Internet protocol we know and how are they different?

Already by this point, we should know that an IP address is the identity of our team through a network. But we should also know that there are two official versions of Internet protocols.

These versions are explained to you below:

IPv4

The most common version is IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4), whose main characteristic is, to be an offline protocol, which we can observe in networks that use packet switching.

All IPv4 addresses are 32 bits, which are constituted by four octets (8-bit numbers) in a decimal notation, which are always separated by periods, so your maximum number for addresses is 4.3 billion. Most of the IPs of this version are built as follows: 192.168.0.25

It is predicted that this protocol will be forgotten because every day is more limited. After all, it requires different supplements such as ICMP and ARP so that it can work correctly.

IPv6

The new generation of the IP protocol it’s version 6 (IPv6), was developed a few years ago, so it is considered to offer a better connection and transmission of data, this is because it is the evolution of the enhanced version of IPv4.

These addresses are based on 128 Bits and consist of 8 sections with 16 bits, which are separated between two points (:). IPv6 is the long-term solution and the future of the Internet, this version grows as the network grows.

IP version 6 has the following advantages:

  • IPv6 does not need to use NAT (Network Address Translation).
  • May eliminate any possibility of private address collisions.
  • It offers a greater number of IP addresses, unlike IPv4 that only supports up to a maximum of 2 ^ 32 in the address field, while version 6 can support up to 2 ^ 128.
  • If we talk about the header format, this one is much simpler, which allows a much simpler routing than IPv4 with greater efficiency in packets.
  • We can see notoriously improvements in the quality of services (QoS).
  • DHCP use is avoided
  • Offers a greater security network layer (IPsec)
  • We can find an automatic address configuration so that it facilitates network administration.

Differences from version 4 vs version 6.

  • Version 4 offers a length of 32 bits in length, while version 6, offers 128 bits.
  • The lifetime of the IPv4 protocol is governed by DHCP, while the IPv6 has two lifetimes, valid and preferred.
  • IPv4 has address masks.
  • IPv6 has a faster data transfer rate than IPv4.

How does IP work? What layer of the network protocol?

IP function is to achieve effective communication between two points. Such a process needs a parent point, which can be the router or modem, then the medium which is the network that will be used to establish communication and the destination point.

In more detail, the network protocols have a 4-layer architecture, which are:

  • The physical or network link layer: This layer specifies all the characteristics of the hardware used for the network and its routed data.
  • The Internet or IP layer: This layer also known as TCP / IP is responsible for providing the data packet or datagrams.
  • The transport layer or TCP: Its only function is to ensure that packages arrive at their destination without errors and in sequence.
  • The application layer: In this last layer the applications or actions that were ordered are carried out.

Steps to know the private IP address of your Windows, Linux, or macOS computer

Now that you know what an IP address is, it is time to learn how to find and find your computer in case you need it for any other process. Here we show you how to do it in the main operating systems:

How To Know IP Address on windows:

To know what is the IP from a Windows computer we just have to follow the steps below:

  • Let’s go to the network icon.
  • We look for the network to which we are connected to.
  • We right-click on the network and from the drop-down list that appears we click on “State”.
  • We will see a table with different options and select “Details.”
  • Finally, we click on “close” when we know what is the IP of our network.

network details

How To Know IP Address on macOS

ip on Mac

To know what is the IP address of our network through a MacOS we only use the “OS X terminal”, following the following commands:

  • Already in the “OS X terminal” we enter the terminal the command ifconfig.
  • When we execute this command we will be shown all the information about the network adapters that we have on our Mac (virtual and physical), there we can also see the IP address of our Network.

How To Know IP Address on Linux

In Linux, it will also be necessary to use the “Terminal” And like the previous cases, it is very simple.

Being in the “Linux terminal” enter the command “Ifconfig interface (address (parameters))” (without the quotes). With a single step we can know all the information of our network, although if we only use the command “IFCONFIG” will give us the following results:

  • eth0 Link encap 10Mps
  • Ethernet HWaddr 00: 00: c0: 90: b3: 42 inet addr 192.168.1.2
  • Bcast 192.168.1.255 Mask 255.255.255.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MTU 1500 Metric 0 RX packets 3136 errors
  • 217 dropped 7 overrun 26 TX packets 1752 errors 25 dropped 0 overrun 0

Since the information we are looking for is the IP of our network, we only look for the line where it appears “Inet addr” and the address that emerges immediately is the IP of the network we are connected to.